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J Carcinog2006,  5:14

Reactive oxygen species: Role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions

1 Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2 Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Medical Science Center, Madison, WI 53706, USA

Date of Submission16-Dec-2005
Date of Acceptance11-May-2006
Date of Web Publication11-May-2006

Correspondence Address:
Haseeb Ahsan
Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Medical Science Center, Madison, WI 53706
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.1186/1477-3163-5-14


Oxygen derived species such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are well known to be cytotoxic and have been implicated in the etiology of a wide array of human diseases, including cancer. Various carcinogens may also partly exert their effect by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their metabolism. Oxidative damage to cellular DNA can lead to mutations and may, therefore, play an important role in the initiation and progression of multistage carcinogenesis. The changes in DNA such as base modification, rearrangement of DNA sequence, miscoding of DNA lesion, gene duplication and the activation of oncogenes may be involved in the initiation of various cancers. Elevated levels of ROS and down regulation of ROS scavengers and antioxidant enzymes are associated with various human diseases including various cancers. ROS are also implicated in diabtes and neurodegenerative diseases. ROS influences central cellular processes such as proliferation a, apoptosis, senescence which are implicated in the development of cancer. Understanding the role of ROS as key mediators in signaling cascades may provide various opportunities for pharmacological intervention.

How to cite this article:
Waris G, Ahsan H. Reactive oxygen species: Role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions. J Carcinog 2006;5:14

How to cite this URL:
Waris G, Ahsan H. Reactive oxygen species: Role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions. J Carcinog [serial online] 2006 [cited 2021 Sep 19];5:14. Available from:

  Review Top

The term cancer refers to more than hundred types of the disease. Almost every tissue in the body can spawn malignancies and some can yield several types. Cancer cells possess an even more insidious property to migrate from the site where they originate and form masses at distinct sites in the body. Cancer progression is a stepwise process where the initiated cells, nodules, polyp or the papilloma evolve further and become progressively more malignant. The genes implicated in malignancy are often modified forms of human genes. The activation of protooncogenes into oncogenes may contribute to malignancy. Mutations can also convert protooncogenes into carcinogenic oncogenes [1,2].

  Reactive oxygen species Top

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived from the metabolism of molecular oxygen [3]. ROS include superoxide anion radical (O 2 -. ), singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and the highly reactive hydroxyl radical ( . OH). The deleterious effects of oxygen are said to result from its metabolic reduction to these highly reactive and toxic species [4].

ROS normally exist in all aerobic cells in balance with biochemical antioxidants. Oxidative stress occurs when this critical balance is disrupted because of excess ROS, antioxidants depletion, or both. To counteract the oxidant effects and to restore redox balance, cells must reset important homeostatic parameters. ROS are not always harmful metabolic byproducts; when tightly regulated, ROS can act as intracellular signaling molecules [5,6].

In living cells, the major source of endogenous ROS are hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, which are generated as by products of cellular metabolism such as mitochondrial respiration [7]. Alternatively, hydrogen peroxide may be converted into water by the enzymes catalase or glutathione peroxidase. Variability or inductive changes in the expression of these enzymes can significantly influence cellular redox potential. ROS can cause tissue damage by reacting with lipids in cellular membranes, nucleotides in DNA [8], sulphydryl groups in proteins [9] and cross-linking/fragmentation of ribonucleoproteins [10] (see [Figure 1]). The relatively unreactive superoxide anion radical is converted by superoxide dismutase (SOD) into H 2 O2 , which in turn take part in the "Fenton reaction", with transition metal ion (copper or iron) as catalysts, to produce the very reactive hydroxyl radical [11-14].

  Oxidative DNA damage and cancer Top

Damage to DNA by ROS has been widely accepted as a major cause of cancer [15]. In patients with diseases associated with a risk of cancer indicates an increased rate of oxidative DNA damage or in some instances deficient repair system such as Fanconi anemia, chronic hepatitis, cystic fibrosis and various autoimmune diseases [16-20]. Human studies support the experimentally based notion of oxidative DNA damage as an important mutagenic and apparently carcinogenic factor [21]. ROS can damage DNA and the division of cells with unpaired or misrepaired damage leads to mutations. The majority of mutations induced by ROS appear to involve modification of guanine, causing G→T transversions [22-25]. If it relates to critical genes such as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, initiation/progression can result [26]. Indeed, these species can act at several steps in multistage carcinogenesis. It is now assumed that ROS are involved both in the initiation and progression of cancer [27].

Mutations caused by oxidative DNA damage include a range of specifically oxidized purines and pyrimidines, alkali labile sites, single strand breaks and instability formed directly or by repair processes [28-32]. Because of the multiplicity of DNA modifications produced by ROS, it has been difficult to establish the frequency and specificity of mutations by individual oxygen radical induced lesions. Some of these modified bases have been found to possess mutagenic properties. Therefore, if not repaired they can lead to carcinogenesis. Studies show that although all the four bases are modified by ROS, mutations are usually related to modification of GC base pairs, while that of AT base pair rarely leads to mutations [33]. These mutations are usually base pair substitutions, whereas base deletions and insertions are less frequent. In human tumors, G to T transversions are the most frequent mutations in the p53 suppressor gene [34-36]. Using single stranded DNA template in a sensitive forward mutation system, various mutations, including tandem double CC→TT substitution have been observed in DNA treated with oxygen free radicals [37]. Elevated levels of modified bases in cancerous tissue may be due to the production of large amount of H 2 O 2 , which has found to be characteristic of human tumor cells [38,39]. Initiation of cancer in humans by ROS is further supported by the presence of oxidative DNA modifications in cancer tissue [26,40].

Cigarette smoke, which is rich in carcinogens such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [41-44], causes accumulation of 8–hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8–OHdG). Lungs from cigarette smokers contain two to three fold higher 8–OHdG [45], that could lead to mutations, some of which might be induced by oxygen free radicals, resulting in inflammatory responses, fibrosis and tumor development [46]. Urine obtained from smokers also has a four to ten fold elevation in altered nucleotides that are known to be produced by ROS [47]. Urinary 8–OHdG is a biomarker of oxidative stress, cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetes [48].

Oxidative DNA damage may be involved in the development of breast cancer. Increased steady-state levels of DNA base damage with a pattern characteristic of . OH attack have been reported in inflammatory breast disease [49] where malignant progression can occur. It is reported that elevated levels of 8-oxo-dG adducts in DNA play a fundamental role in breast cancer [50]. Evidence also exists for the progression of breast tumor to the metastatic state and is an important etiologic factor [51]. Carcinoma of hepatic cells is often associated with chronic infection by hepatitis B or C viruses or ingestion of aflatoxins [52-56]. Oxidative stress induced by these viruses represents one of the intracellular events that cause the genesis of hepatocellular carcinoma [17,57]. G→T transition has been shown to be one of the more common types of mutation produced by aflatoxin lesion and ROS damage to DNA [58]. 8–OHdG has also been reported to accumulate in hepatocellular carcinoma [59,60]. The measurement of DNA damage and mutation in human liver as a function of persistence of chronic hepatitis might be predictive for the onset of liver cancer. Chronic prostate hypertrophy is diagnosed in most males by the age of 40 yr. But the late appearance of prostatic carcinoma suggests that a multistep process is involved in tumorigenesis. The paucity of known chemical agents associated with prostate cancer indicates an association with endogenous cellular processes [61-63]. The most reasonable candidates for endogenously formed genotoxins that accumulate in later life are the ROS.

The epidemiological studies involving measurement of typical modified DNA bases in a large variety of individual tumor tissue and their respective normal tissues may provide insights into the mechanism of carcinogenesis related to ROS. Measurement of purine and pyrimidine derived DNA lesions in tissues may prove to be useful in determining an association between free radical producing agents and cancer risk.

  ROS and diseases Top

There is growing awareness that oxidative stress plays a role in various clinical conditions such as malignant diseases, diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, viral infection, and ischemia-reperfusion injury [64-69]. ROS can cause oxidative DNA and protein damage, damage to tumor suppressor genes and enhanced expression of proto-oncogenes [70-72] and oxidative stress has been shown to induce malignant transformation of cells in culture [73]. Diseases associated with oxidative stress such as diabetes mellitus and cancer show a pro-oxidative shift in the redox state and impaired glucose clearance suggesting that muscle mitochondria is the major site of elevated ROS production. This condition may be referred to as 'mitochondrial oxidative stress'. Cancer patients commonly have decreased glucose clearance capacity, high glycolytic activity and lactate production. It is, therefore, suggested that the observed pro-oxidative shift is mediated by an increased availability of mitochondrial energy substrate. The 'inflammatory oxidative conditions' are typically associated with an excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H oxidase by cytokines and other factors. The increased ROS production or changes in intracellular glutathione levels are often involved with pathological changes indicative of a dysregulation of signal cascades or gene expression [74].

ROS are potential carcinogens because they facilitate mutagenesis, tumor promotion and progression. The growth promoting effects of ROS are related to redox-responsive cell signaling cascades. Sometimes, even normal cells show increased proliferation and expression of growth-related genes if exposed to H 2 O 2 or O2 -. . Certain types of cancer cells also produce significant amounts of ROS. ROS production is induced after the expression of several genes associated with a transformed phenotype including H-Ras or mox1.

Because of its high metabolic rate and relatively reduced capacity for cellular regeneration, the brain is believed to be particularly susceptible to the damaging effects of ROS. In neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and amyotrohic lateral sclerosis (ALS), ROS damage has been reported within the specific brain region that undergo selective neurodegeneration. Protein oxidation has been reported in the hippocampus and neocortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and within the motor neurons in ALS [75]. Lipid peroxidation has also been identified in the cortex and hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease, substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease and spinal fluid in patients with ALS. It is known that ROS can cause neuron and astrocyte death through apoptosis and necrosis. Mitochondria are involved in excitotoxic nerve cell death through calcium-related bursts of ROS production and opening of permeability transition pores. Oxidative stress is also related to glutamate release and NMDA receptor activation during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, production of O2 -. in neurons and brain macrophages and glutamine-induced ROS production in astrocytes. Evidence implicating ROS in major degenerative diseases is also consistent with their role in brain aging. There is a general agreement that oxidative stress contributes to dopaminergic cell degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress has also been implicated as one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease [76].

  ROS and viral infection Top

Reactive oxygen metabolites play a complex role in many diseases and metabolic regulation. Because viruses replicate in living cells, such metabolites influence the growth of viruses in addition to serving as a host defense mechanism. Humans infected with viruses (HIV, hepatitis, and influenza) induce activation of phagocytes, which is associated with production of ROS. The activated phagocytes may also release pro-oxidant cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin–1 [77-79].

Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are associated with an increased production of ROS within the liver that is responsible for the oxidation of intracellular macromolecules. Infection with these viruses can also affect the host cell pro-/antioxidant balance by increasing cellular pro-oxidants such as iron and nitric oxide and also by inhibiting the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidants, together with agents interfering with the harmful effects of cytokines and lipid mediators, may have a role in the treatment of viral diseases. ROS may facilitate or even promote replication of many viruses, depending on the cell and type of virus involved. Enhanced oxidative stress modulates the HCV RNA replication and hepatic cell survival via activation of oncogenic transcription factors that leads to the generation of hepatocellular carcinoma (see [Figure 2]) [80-82]. Redox-sensitive kinases, Src, JAK, PI3K-Akt and MAPK (Erk, JNK, p38) regulate transcription factors through phosphorylation of the protein modules (see [Figure 2]). Chronic HBV infection results in an increased total intra-hepatic iron and/or increase in the pro-oxidant low-molecular weight iron compartment of the liver. Previously, a strong correlation between the presence of HBV surface antigen and iron deposition in the Kupffer cells and spleens of infected individuals has been reported [83]. In addition to increased intracellular iron, elevated TNF-α has been found in hepatocytes from patients chronically infected with HBV [84].

Humans infected with HIV have been shown to be under chronic oxidative stress. HIV-seropositive humans exhibit decreased concentrations of naturally occurring antioxidant reductants such as total acid-soluble thiols, cysteine, and glutathione in plasma, peripheral blood monocytes, and lung epithelial-lining fluids [85]. In addition, elevated levels of hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde are found in plasma of HIV-infected individuals. In cell culture system, ROS promotes replication of HIV, and antioxidants such as NAC inhibit the replication of the virus.

Oxidative stress has been reported to affect the cellular protein kinase/phosphatase balance, which is described in a number of tumors. The exogenous oxygen radical load is contributed by a variety of environmental agents (inhaled smoke and polluted air) and dietary antioxidants [86-88]. Mutagens, tumor promoters and a variety of carcinogens including benzene, aflatoxin and benzo(a)pyrene may exert their partly by generating ROS during their metabolism [89-91].

  ROS and signaling cascades Top

ROS is produced in non-phagocytic cells as a result of various signaling pathways such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which become activated by growth factors - epidermal growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor as well as cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, γ-interferon and interleukins) leading to an intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation cascade [64]. The ROS activated signal transduction pathways are regulated by two distinct protein families - the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and the redox sensitive kinases. The MAPKs transduce signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to a wide range of stimuli. MAPKs are serine/threonine kinases that, upon stimulation, phosphorylate their specific substrates at serine and/or threonine residues. Such phosphorylation events can either positively or negatively regulate substrate, and thus entire signaling cascade activity. Thus, the MAPK signaling pathways modulate gene expression, mitosis, proliferation, motility, metabolism, and programmed cell death. Conventional MAPKs consist of three family members: the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, subdivided into ERK1 and 2); the c-Jun NH2–terminal kinase (JNK, subdivided into JNK1, 2 and 3); and the p38 MAPK (subdivided into α, β, γ, and δ p38–MAPK [92].

MAPKs regulate processes important in carcinogenesis including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. MAPK modulate gene expression through phosphorylation of a wide array of transcription factors. Of the three subfamilies, the ERK pathway has most commonly been associated with the regulation of cell proliferation. Activation of the ERK, JNK, and p38 subfamilies has been observed in response to changes in the cellular redox balance. The balance between ERK and JNK activation is a key determinant for cell survival as both a decrease in ERK and an increase in JNK is required for the induction of apoptosis. Activation of MAPKs directly leads to increased AP–1 activity resulting in increased cell proliferation. One of the genes regulated by AP–1 is cyclin D1. AP–1 binding sites have been identified in the cyclin D1 promoter and AP–1 activates this promoter, resulting in activation of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdks), which promotes entry into the cell division cycle. c-Jun also stimulates the progression into the cell cycle both by induction of cyclin D1 and suppression of p21 waf , a protein that inhibits cell cycle progression. JunB, considered a negative regulator of c-jun-induced cell proliferation, represses c-jun-induced cyclin D1 activation by the transcription of p16 INK4a , a protein that inhibits the G1 to S phase transition.

NF-κB activation has been linked to the carcinogenesis process because of its roles in inflammation, differentiation and cell growth. NF-κB regulates several genes involved in cell transformation, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Carcinogens and tumor promoters including UV radiation, phorbol esters, asbestos, alcohol, and benzo(a)pyrene are among the external stimuli that activate NF-κB. The expression of several genes regulated by NF-κB (bcl–2, bcl-x L , TRAF1, TRAF2, SOD, and A20) promotes cell survival at least in part through inhibition of apoptotic pathways. Expression of NF-κB has been shown to promote cell proliferation, whereas inhibition of NF-κB activation blocks cell proliferation. Additionally, tumor cells from blood neoplasms, and colon, breast, pancreas, and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines have all been reported to constitutively express activated NF-κB [93].

The second family consists of signaling factors that use cysteine motifs as redox-sensitive sulphydryl switches to modulate specific signal transduction cascades regulating downstream proteins. The redox-sensitive signaling cascade involves the cytoplasmic factors (thioredoxins), nuclear signaling factors such as Ref–1 (Redox factor–1) and transcription factors (AP–1, NF-κB, Nfr–1, Egr–1). The cytoplasmic sulphydryl containing proteins such as thioredoxins are critical upstream signaling proteins that regulate multiple intracellular processes such as DNA synthesis, cell growth, etc. The signaling cascades elicited by ROS culminates in the activation of c-Jun and c-Fos subunits of the active nuclear transcription factor, AP–1 (activator protein–1), that activate genes involved in cellular proliferation. Redox-sensitive signaling factors regulate multiple processes including proliferation, cell cycle and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Inhibition of thioredoxins inhibits several pro-survival transcription factors such as Egr–1, AP–1 and NF–κB resulting in a G1 phase arrest [94] (see [Figure 3]).

The role of reactive oxygen species in cell growth regulation is complex, being cell specific and dependent upon the form of the oxidant as well as the concentration of the particular reactive oxygen species. The modification of gene expression by reactive oxygen species has direct effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis through the activation of transcription factors including MAPK, AP–1, and NF-κB pathways. Oxidant-mediated AP–1 activation results in enhanced expression of cyclin D1 and cdks, which in turn promotes entry into mitosis and cell division. Likewise, reactive oxygen species function as second messengers involved in activation of NF-κB by tumor necrosis factor and cytokines. DNA damage, mutation, and altered gene expression are all required participants in the process of carcinogenesis. Although these events may be derived by different mechanisms, a common theme is the involvement of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in neoplastic transformation.

  Acknowledgements Top

The authors would like to thank their mentors and advisors for guidance, encouragement and support.

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77 Differential modulation of ROS signals and other mitochondrial parameters by the antioxidants MitoQ, resveratrol and curcumin in human adipocytes
Estelle Hirzel,Peter W. Lindinger,Swarna Maseneni,Maria Giese,Véronique Virginie Rhein,Anne Eckert,Matthias Hoch,Stephan Krähenbühl,Alex N. Eberle
Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction. 2013; 33(5): 304
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Polymorphisms in the superoxidase dismutase genes reveal no association with human longevity in Germans: a case–control association study
Liljana Gentschew,Friederike Flachsbart,Rabea Kleindorp,Nandini Badarinarayan,Stefan Schreiber,Almut Nebel
Biogerontology. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Synergistic and individual effects of umbelliferone with 5-fluorouracil on tumor markers and antioxidant status of rat treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine
R. Muthu,M. Vaiyapuri
Biomedicine & Aging Pathology. 2013;
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80 SPRR2A expression in cholangiocarcinoma increases local tumor invasiveness but prevents metastasis
Susan Specht,Kumiko Isse,Isao Nozaki,John G. Lunz,Anthony J. Demetris
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 A cytotoxic protein (BF-CT1) purified from Bungarus fasciatus venom acts through apoptosis, modulation of PI3K/AKT, MAPKinase pathway and cell cycle regulation
Shamik Bhattacharya,Tanaya Das,Archita Biswas,Aparna Gomes,Antony Gomes,Sandhya Rekha Dungdung
Toxicon. 2013; 74: 138
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82 Understanding the antioxidant behavior of some vitamin molecules: a first-principles density functional approach
Vipin Kumar,Shyam Kishor,Lavanya M. Ramaniah
Journal of Molecular Modeling. 2013; 19(8): 3175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 Aiding Nature’s Organelles: Artificial Peroxisomes Play Their Role
Pascal Tanner,Vimalkumar Balasubramanian,Cornelia G. Palivan
Nano Letters. 2013; 13(6): 2875
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Fucoidans as a natural bioactive ingredient for functional foods
Thanh-Sang Vo,Se-Kwon Kim
Journal of Functional Foods. 2013; 5(1): 16
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Curbing canceræs sweet tooth: Is there a role for MnSOD in regulation of the Warburg effect?
Aaron K. Holley,Sanjit Kumar Dhar,Daret K. St. Clair
Mitochondrion. 2013; 13(3): 170
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 In vitro CO2-induced ROS production impairs cell cycle in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells
Angela Simona Montalto,Monica Currò,Tiziana Russo,Giuseppa Visalli,Pietro Impellizzeri,Pietro Antonuccio,Salvatore Arena,Francesca Astra Borruto,Gianfranco Scalfari,Riccardo Ientile,Carmelo Romeo
Pediatric Surgery International. 2013; 29(1): 51
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Damage Induced by Halobenzoquinones to T24 Bladder Cancer Cells
Haiying Du,Jinhua Li,Birget Moe,Claire F. McGuigan,Shengwen Shen,Xing-Fang Li
Environmental Science & Technology. 2013; 47(6): 2823
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Comparison of Tamoxifen with Edible Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii L.) Extract in Suppressing Breast Tumor
Fatemeh T. Shamsabadi,Ali Khoddami,Samaneh Ghasemi Fard,Rasedee Abdullah,Hemn Hassan Othman,Suhaila Mohamed
Nutrition and Cancer. 2013; 65(2): 255
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Inflammation and oxidative stress in angiogenesis and vascular disease
Young-Woong Kim,Xiaoxia Z. West,Tatiana V. Byzova
Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2013; 91(3): 323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Chemopreventive and antioxidant activity by Smilax zeylanica leaf extract against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in wistar albino rats
Venugopalan Rajesh,Perumal Perumal
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Phytochemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. Stem (Amaranthaceae)
Gaurav Kumar,Loganathan Karthik,Kokati Vankata Bhaskara Rao
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2013; 6(3): 180
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population
Debolina Pal,Subhayan Sur,Shyamsundar Mandal,Sukta Das,Chinmay Kumar Panda
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012; 50(9): 2996
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Cu(GlyGlyHis) effects on MCF7 cells: Copper uptake, reactive oxygen species generation and membrane topography changes
Andreza C. Matias,Nathália Villa dos Santos,Rodrigo Chelegão,Cassiana S. Nomura,Pablo A. Fiorito,Giselle Cerchiaro
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2012; 116: 172
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Analysis of functional properties of biologically active substances using eukaryotic cell models (review)
K. V. Lisitskaya,I. V. Nikolaev,A. A. Torkova,V. O. Popov,O. V. Koroleva
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 2012; 48(6): 525
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 Poly(PS-b-DMA) micelles for reactive oxygen species triggered drug release
Mukesh K. Gupta,Travis A. Meyer,Christopher E. Nelson,Craig L. Duvall
Journal of Controlled Release. 2012; 162(3): 591
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Insights into Intrastrand Cross-Link Lesions of DNA from QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Julian Garrec,Chandan Patel,Ursula Rothlisberger,Elise Dumont
Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2012; 134(4): 2111
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 DNA damage by reactive species: Mechanisms, mutation and repair
N R Jena
Journal of Biosciences. 2012; 37(3): 503
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Significance of CD44 and CD24 as Cancer Stem Cell Markers: An Enduring Ambiguity
Appalaraju Jaggupilli,Eyad Elkord
Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 2012; 2012: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
99 Examining the relationship between diet-induced acidosis and cancer
Ian Forrest Robey
Nutrition & Metabolism. 2012; 9(1): 72
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
100 Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Activity of Acerola (Malpighia glabraL.) Extract in Relation to the Geographic Origin
Roberta Da Silva Nunes,Vivian Francília Silva Kahl,Merielen Da Silva Sarmento,Marc François Richter,Juan Andres Abin-Carriquiry,Marcela María Martinez,Alexandre De Barros Falcão Ferraz,Juliana Da Silva
Phytotherapy Research. 2012; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
101 Regulation of suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by CD4+ T cells
Srinivas Nagaraj, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich
Seminars in Cancer Biology. 2012;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
102 Mitigation by vitamin C of the genotoxic effects of nicotine in mice, assessed by the comet assay and micronucleus induction
Vivian F.S. Kahl, Juliana M. Reyes, Merielen S. Sarmento, Juliana da Silva
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 2012;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
103 Studies on the potential antioxidant properties of <i>Senecio stabianus</i> Lacaita (Asteraceae) and its inhibitory activity against carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes
Rosa Tundis, Federica Menichini, Monica R. Loizzo, Marco Bonesi, Umberto Solimene, Francesco Menichini
Natural Product Research. 2012; 26(5): 393
[VIEW] | [DOI]
104 Cysteine Reactivity Distinguishes Redox Sensing by the Heat-Inducible and Constitutive Forms of Heat Shock Protein 70
Yoshinari Miyata,Jennifer N. Rauch,Umesh K. Jinwal,Andrea D. Thompson,Sharan Srinivasan,Chad A. Dickey,Jason E. Gestwicki
Chemistry & Biology. 2012; 19(11): 1391
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105 Maintenance of higher H2O2 levels, and its mechanism of action to induce growth in breast cancer cells: Important roles of bioactive catalase and PP2A
Suvajit Sen,Brian Kawahara,Gautam Chaudhuri
Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2012; 53(8): 1541
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
106 Association of Alanine-Valine Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Polymorphism and Microheterogeneity Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Breast Cancer and Benign Breast Tissue
Manar Atoum,Malak Abdel-Fattah,Nisreen Nimer,Saleem Abdel-Rahman,Sawsan A. Abdeldayem
Journal of Breast Cancer. 2012; 15(2): 157
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
107 Cigarette Smoking and hOGG1 Ser326Cys Polymorphism are Associated with 8-OHdG Accumulation on Mitochondrial DNA in Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Chen-Sung Lin,Liang-Shun Wang,Teh-Ying Chou,Wen-Hu Hsu,Hui-Chen Lin,Shu-Yu Lee,Mau-Hua Lee,Shi-Chuan Chang,Yau-Huei Wei
Annals of Surgical Oncology. 2012;
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108 Modulation of Acid Phosphatase and Lactic Dehydrogenase in Hexachlorocyclohexane-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis in Mice
Devendra Kumar Bhatt,Girima Nagda
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 2012; 26(11): 439
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
109 Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity
Damian G. Deavall,Elizabeth A. Martin,Judith M. Horner,Ruth Roberts
Journal of Toxicology. 2012; 2012: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
110 Antioxidant effect of silymarin on paraquat-induced human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line
Biswajit Podder,Yong-Sik Kim,Tamanna Zerin,Ho-Yeon Song
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012; 50(9): 3206
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111 Selective and Sensitive Fluorescence Chemosensor for the Hypochlorite Anion in Water
Fangfang Wei,Yan Lu,Song He,Liancheng Zhao,Xianshun Zeng
Journal of Fluorescence. 2012; 22(5): 1257
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
112 Antioxidant potential of naringin – a dietary flavonoid – in N-Nitrosodiethylamine induced rat liver carcinogenesis
Prabu Thangavel,Ragunath Muthu,Manju Vaiyapuri
Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition. 2012; 2(3): 193
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
113 Interleukin-24 Suppresses the Growth of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Inhibiting H2O2-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Production
Ki-Mo Lee,Haeng-A. Kang,Min Park,Hwa-Youn Lee,Min-Ji Song,Kisung Ko,Jae-Wook Oh,Hyung-Sik Kang
Pharmacology. 2012; 90(5-6): 332
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
114 Juglone, from Juglans mandshruica Maxim, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell HL-60 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism
Hua Li Xu, Xiao Feng Yu, Shao Chun Qu, Xiang Ru Qu, Yan Fang Jiang, Da Yuan Sui
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012;
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115 Regulation of suppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by CD4+ T cells; MDSC and CD4+ T cells
Srinivas Nagaraj, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich
Seminars in Cancer Biology. 2012;
[VIEW] | [DOI]
116 An aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe protects mouse primary hepatic cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress
Su Young Oh, Ji-hye Lee, Ji Seon Lee, Sanghee Seo, Jinyeul Ma
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 2012; 17(1): 168
[VIEW] | [DOI]
117 Upregulation of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and IRAK-2 Expression During ML-1 Cell Differentiation to Macrophages: Role in the Potentiation of Cellular Responses to LPS and LTA
Kassim Traore, Barry Zirkin, Rajesh K. Thimmulappa, Shyam Biswal, Michael A. Trush
ISRN Oncology. 2012; 2012: 1
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118 Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of New Bis(2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)ethoxy)alkanes and Their Pharmacological Activity
Vangavaragu Jhansi Rani, Raghavendra Aminedi, Kishore Polireddy, Kanala Jagadeeswarareddy
Archiv der Pharmazie. 2012; : n/a
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119 Tetrathiomolybdate sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to anticancer drugs doxorubicin, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C
Kyu Kwang Kim, Thilo S Lange, Rakesh K Singh, Laurent Brard, Richard G Moore
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12(1): 147
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120 Effect of Extraction Procedures, Genotypes and Screening Methods to Measure the Antioxidant Potential and Phenolic Content of Orange-fleshed Sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.)
Jace D. Everette, Shahidul Islam
American Journal of Food Technology. 2012; 7(2): 50
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121 Manganese superoxide dismutase: beyond life and death
Aaron K. Holley, Sanjit Kumar Dhar, Yong Xu, Daret K. St. Clair
Amino Acids. 2012; 42(1): 139
[VIEW] | [DOI]
122 Antioxidant and Quinone Reductase-Inducing Constituents of Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits
Jie Li,Ye Deng,Chunhua Yuan,Li Pan,Heebyung Chai,William J. Keller,A. Douglas Kinghorn
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2012; 60(46): 11551
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
123 Insulin receptor substrate-1 prevents autophagy-dependent cell death caused by oxidative stress in mouse NIH/3T3 cells
Shih-Hung Chan,Ushio Kikkawa,Hidenori Matsuzaki,Jyh-Hong Chen,Wen-Chang Chang
Journal of Biomedical Science. 2012; 19(1): 64
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
124 Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Liver Proteins Isolated from 2-Aminoanthracene Exposed Fisher-344 Rats
Worlanyo E. Gato, Henok D. Abshiro, Emilia O. Zargham, Jay C. Means
Current Research in Chemistry. 2012; 4(1): 1
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125 Induction of apoptosis by casticin in cervical cancer cells: reactive oxygen species-dependent sustained activation of Jun N-terminal kinase
F. Zeng, L. Tian, F. Liu, J. Cao, M. Quan, X. Sheng
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica. 2012;
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126 Evaluation of three simple direct or indirect carbonyl detection methods for characterization of oxidative modifications of proteins
Verónica R. Vásquez-Garzón, Patrick Rouimi, Isabelle Jouanin, Georg Waeg, Neven Zarkovic, Saul Villa-Treviño, Françoise Guéraud
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 2012; : 1
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127 Empty-Level Structure and Reactive Species Produced by Dissociative Electron Attachment to <i>tert</i>-Butyl Peroxybenzoate
Alberto Modelli, Stanislav A. Pshenichnyuk
The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2012; 116(14): 3585
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128 Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein
Siddhartha Rawat,Amy Clippinger,Michael Bouchard
Viruses. 2012; 4(12): 2945
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129 Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: Guardian of the Powerhouse
Aaron K. Holley,Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu,Joyce M. Velez-Roman,Daret K. St. Clair
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(12): 7114
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130 Age-related differences in cigarette smoke extract-induced H2O2 production by lung endothelial cells
Charles A. Downs, David W. Montgomery, Carrie J. Merkle
Microvascular Research. 2011;
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131 Eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation has no effect on antioxidant status in healthy overweight/obese Korean individuals
Jungmi Kim, Hyun-Dong Paik, Min-Jeong Shin, Eunju Park
European Journal of Nutrition. 2011;
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132 T Cell Stimulatory Effects of Korean Red Ginseng through Modulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Chan-Oh Jeon, Soo-Won Kang, Seung-Beom Park, Kyung-Taek Lim, Kwang-Woo Hwang, Hye-Young Min
Journal of Ginseng Research. 2011; 35(4): 462
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133 Aerobacteriology of laboratories and offices: Evidence of high risk exposure to immune complex formation in Nigeria
MC Ezeani, MI Agba, CC Onyenekwe, I Anahalu, CC Azikiwe, BE Unaezeb, UU Ezeani
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2011; 1(2): 131
[VIEW] | [DOI]
134 Involvement of reactive oxygen species in 2-methoxyestradiol-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells
Qi Zhang, Yan Ma, Yue-Fang Cheng, Wen-Jie Li, Zhenzhong Zhang, Shao-yu Chen
Cancer Letters. 2011; 313(2): 201
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135 Intracellular reactive oxygen species are essential for PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent IL-7-mediated viability of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells
A Silva, A Gírio, I Cebola, C I Santos, F Antunes, J T Barata
Leukemia. 2011; 25(6): 960
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136 Protective effect of trifluoperazine on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells
Shichang Liu, Yangguang Han, Tao Zhang, Zhuo Yang
Brain Research Bulletin. 2011; 84(2): 183
[VIEW] | [DOI]
137 Zinc chloride-catalyzed one-pot, three-component synthesis of 5,8-dihydro-5,8-dioxo-4H-chromene derivatives
Vakiti Srinivas, Vedula Rajeswar Rao
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2011; : n/a
[VIEW] | [DOI]
138 Photodynamic therapy for pathogenic fungi : Antifungal PDT
Juliana Pereira Lyon, Leonardo Marmo Moreira, Pedro Claudio Guaranho de Moraes, Fábio Vieira dos Santos, Maria Aparecida de Resende
Mycoses. 2011; : no
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139 Carotenoid exposure of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells did not affect selected inflammatory markers but altered their proteomic response
Anouk Kaulmann, Tommaso Serchi, Jenny Renaut, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn
British Journal Of Nutrition. 2011; : 1
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140 Genetic polymorphism of the glutathione-S-transferase P1 gene (GSTP1) and susceptibility to prostate cancer in the Kashmiri population
Q. Qadri, A.S. Sameer, Z.A. Shah, A. Hamid, S. Alam, S. Manzoor, M.A. Siddiqi
Genetics and Molecular Research. 2011; 10(4): 3038
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141 Bio-screening of a few green seaweeds from India for their cytotoxic and antioxidant potential
Rashmi C Vinayak, Sabu Appukuttan Sudha, Anil Chatterji
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2011; 91(13): 2471
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142 GPx3 promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in human cancer and is associated with tumorigenesis and chemotherapy response
Baishen Chen, Xi Rao, Michael G. House, Kenneth P. Nephew, Kevin J. Cullen, Zhongmin Guo
Cancer Letters. 2011;
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143 4-Ketopinoresinol, a novel naturally occurring ARE activator, induces the Nrf2/HO-1 axis and protects against oxidative stress-induced cell injury via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling
Huang-Hui Chen, Yu-Tsen Chen, Yen-Wen Huang, Hui-Ju Tsai, Ching-Chuan Kuo
Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2011;
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144 <i>Emblica officinalis</i> Gaertn. Attentuates <i>N</i>-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Inflammation in Rat Livers
Kuo-Hsin Chen, Bor-Ru Lin, Chiang-Ting Chien, Chien-Hsin Ho
Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011; 14(7-8): 746
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145 Splenectomy may be a prophylactic treatment for cerebral ischemia?
Yusuf Izci
Medical Hypotheses. 2010; 75(4): 347
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
146 Plumbagin induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells in vivo
Kai-Hong Xu,Dao-Pei Lu
Leukemia Research. 2010; 34(5): 658
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
147 The Physicochemistry and Toxicology of CFA Particles
Tim Jones,Patrick Brown,Kelly BéruBé,Anna Wlodarczyk,Shao Longyi
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2010; 73(5-6): 341
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
148 Effect of acyl donor chain length on isoquercitrin acylation and biological activities of corresponding esters
Jamila Hadj Salem,Catherine Humeau,Isabelle Chevalot,Christelle Harscoat-Schiavo,Régis Vanderesse,Fabrice Blanchard,Michel Fick
Process Biochemistry. 2010; 45(3): 382
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
149 Moving Toward Paradigm-Shifting Research in Health Disparities Through Translational, Transformational, and Transdisciplinary Approaches
Irene Dankwa-Mullan,Kyu B. Rhee,David M. Stoff,Jennifer Reineke Pohlhaus,Francisco S. Sy,Nathaniel Stinson,John Ruffin
American Journal of Public Health. 2010; 100(S1): S19
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
150 REDOX regulation of IL-13 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells: Usage of alternate pathways mediates distinct gene expression patterns
Debasmita Mandal, Pingfu Fu, Alan D. Levine
Cellular Signalling. 2010; 22(10): 1485
[VIEW] | [DOI]
151 Resveratrol-induced p53-independent apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells is correlated with the downregulation of ΔNp63
S-E Chow, J-S Wang, S-F Chuang, Y-L Chang, W-K Chu, W-S Chen, Y-W Chen
Cancer Gene Therapy. 2010; 17(12): 872
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152 Plumbagin induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells in vivo
Xu, K.-H., Lu, D.-P.
Leukemia Research. 2010; 34(5): 658-665
153 Molecular cloning, expression and antioxidant activity of a peroxiredoxin 2 homologue from Lampetra japonica
Sun, J., Liu, X., Li, Q.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 2010; 28(5-6): 795-801
154 Antioxidant activity of chitooligosaccharides upon two biological systems: Erythrocytes and bacteriophages
Fernandes, J.C., Eaton, P., Nascimento, H., Gião, M.S., Ramos, O.S., Belo, L., Santos-Silva, A., Malcata, F.X.
Carbohydrate Polymers. 2010; 79(4): 1101-1106
155 Effect of acyl donor chain length on isoquercitrin acylation and biological activities of corresponding esters
Salem, J.H., Humeau, C., Chevalot, I., Harscoat-Schiavo, C., Vanderesse, R., Blanchard, F., Fick, M.
Process Biochemistry. 2010; 45(3): 382-389
156 Lipophilic aroylhydrazone chelator HNTMB and its multiple effects on ovarian cancer cells
Kim, K.K., Lange, T.S., Singh, R.K., Brard, L.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10(art no 72)
157 The physicochemistry and toxicology of CFA particles
Jones, T., Brown, P., Bérubé, K., Wlodarczyk, A., Longyi, S.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues. 2010; 73(5-6): 341-354
158 Hypertension, diuretics and antihypertensives in relation to bladder cancer
X. Jiang, J. E. Castelao, J.-M. Yuan, S. Groshen, M. C. Stern, D. V. Conti, V. K. Cortessis, G. A. Coetzee, M. C. Pike, M. Gago-Dominguez
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(11): 1964
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159 Perchlorotrityl radical-fluorophore conjugates as dual fluorescence and EPR probes for superoxide radical anion
Jinhua Wang, Vinh Dang, Wei Zhao, Dongning Lu, Brian K. Rivera, Frederick A. Villamena, Peng George Wang, Periannan Kuppusamy
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 2010; 18(2): 922
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160 Comparative study of kinetics on DNA double-strand break induced by photo- and gamma-irradiation: Protective effect of water-soluble flavonoids
Yuko Yoshikawa, Toshiaki Mori, Mari Suzuki, Tadayuki Imanaka, Kenichi Yoshikawa
Chemical Physics Letters. 2010; 501(1-3): 146
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161 Neuroprotective Effect of Baicalein on Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in PC12 Cells
Shehua Zhang, Junli Ye, Guoxiong Dong
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 2010; 40(3): 311-320
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
162 Involvement of oxidative stress in simvastatin-induced apoptosis of murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells
Xu-Feng Qi, Dong-Heui Kim, Yang-Suk Yoon, Soo-Ki Kim, Dong-Qing Cai, Yung-Chien Teng, Kwang-Yong Shim, Kyu-Jae Lee
Toxicology Letters. 2010; 199(3): 277
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163 Apoptotic effect of Naphthoquinone derivatives on HCT116 colon cancer cells
Young-Sam Im, Yongseog Chung, Dae Yeon Won, Soo Han Kwon, Hye-Ryun Kim, Dong Geun Lee, Seung-Ryul Kim, Kyung Do Park, Hak-Kyo Lee, Joong-Kook Choi
Genes & Genomics. 2010; 32(6): 592
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164 Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Human Cancer :
Srinivas Nagaraj, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich
The Cancer Journal. 2010; 16(4): 348
[VIEW] | [DOI]
165 Moving toward paradigm-shifting research in health disparities through translational, transformational, and transdisciplinary approaches
Dankwa-Mullan, I., Rhee, K.B., Stoff, D.M., Pohlhaus, J.R., Sy, F.S., Stinson Jr., N., Ruffin, J.
American Journal of Public Health. 2010; 100(SUPPL 1): S19-S24
166 RelB regulates manganese superoxide dismutase gene and resistance to ionizing radiation of prostate cancer cells : Holley et al.
Aaron K. Holley, Yong Xu, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2010; 1201(1): 129
[VIEW] | [DOI]
167 The Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by Contact Allergens and Irritants in Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells
Dashlkhumbe Byamba, Tae Gyun Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Jeong Hwan Je, Min-Geol Lee
Annals of Dermatology. 2010; 22(3): 269
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168 Characterization of Low-Temperature Microwave Plasma Treatment With and Without UV Light for Disinfection
Tetsuji Shimizu, Tetyana Nosenko, Gregor Eugen Morfill, Takehiko Sato, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Takuya Urayama
Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2010; 7(3-4): 288
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169 Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine- induced liver toxicity in adult rats
Janani, P., Sivakumari, K., Parthasarathy, C.
Cell Biology and Toxicology. 2009; 25(5): 425-434
170 Augmented survival of bacteria within biofilms to exposure to an atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma source
Salamitou, S., Kirkpatrick, M.J., Ly, H.M., Leblon, G., Odic, E., DuBow, M.S.
Biotechnology. 2009; 8(2): 228-234
171 Modulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle dehydrogenases during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hexachlorocyclohexane in mice
Bhatt, D.K., Bano, M.
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 2009; 61(4): 325-332
172 Arsenic induces telomerase expression and maintains telomere length in human cord blood cells
Ferrario, D., Collotta, A., Carfi, M., Bowe, G., Vahter, M., Hartung, T., Gribaldo, L.
Toxicology. 2009; 260(1-3): 132-141
173 Antioxidative and antiinflammatory potential of different functional drink conceptsin vitro
Peter C. Dartsch,Adolf Kler,Erwin Kriesl
Phytotherapy Research. 2009; 23(2): 165
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174 The use of magnetic field effects on photosensitizer luminescence as a novel probe for optical monitoring of oxygen in photodynamic therapy
O Mermut,K R Diamond,J-F Cormier,P Gallant,N Hô,S Leclair,J-S Marois,I Noiseux,J-F Morin,M S Patterson,M L Vernon
Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2009; 54(1): 1
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175 Evaluation of pH and Calcium Ion Release of Calcium Hydroxide Pastes Containing Different Substances
Marco Antônio Húngaro Duarte,Raquel Zanin Midena,Márcia A. Zeferino,Rodrigo Ricci Vivan,Paulo Henrique Weckwerth,Fernando dos Santos,Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru,Mário Tanomaru-Filho
Journal of Endodontics. 2009; 35(9): 1274
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176 Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus
Honghai Hu,Zhenya Zhang,Zhongfang Lei,Yingnan Yang,Norio Sugiura
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2009; 107(1): 42
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177 Comparison of eumelanin and pheomelanin content between cultured uveal melanoma cells and normal uveal melanocytes
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178 Cytotoxic and antioxidative phenolic compounds from the traditional chinese medicinal plant, myristica fragrans
Duan, L., Tao, H.W., Hao, X.J., Gu, Q.Q., Zhu, W.M.
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179 Designing plasmas for chronic wound disinfection
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180 Plasma medicine: an introductory review
M G Kong, G Kroesen, G Morfill, T Nosenko, T Shimizu, J van Dijk, J L Zimmermann
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181 Watching the watcher: regulation of p53 by mitochondria
Aaron K Holley, Daret K St Clair
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182 Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system
Gabrilovich, D.I., Nagaraj, S.
Nature Reviews Immunology. 2009; 9(3): 162-174
183 Bacteriophage interactions with phagocytes and their potential significance in experimental therapy
Kurzȩpa, A., Da̧browska, K., Skaradziński, G., Górski, A.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2009; 9(2): 93-100
184 Occupational toxicology of nickel and nickel compounds
Zhao, J., Shi, X., Castranova, V., Ding, M.
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology. 2009; 28(3): 177-208
185 Examination of polymorphic glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, tobacco smoking and prostate cancer risk among Men of African Descent: A case-control study
Lavender, N.A., Benford, M.L., VanCleave, T.T., Brock, G.N., Kittles, R.A., Moore, J.H., Hein, D.W., Kidd, L.C.R.
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9(art no 397)
186 Improved survival in patients with end-stage cancer treated with coenzyme Q10 and other antioxidants: A pilot study
Hertz, N., Lister, R.E.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2009; 37(6): 1961-1971
187 Preparation and characterization of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase covalently modified by polyunsaturated fatty acids
Zhan, Z.J., Zhou, Z.G., Shan, W.G.
Biochemistry (Moscow). 2009; 74(11): 1266-1269
188 Antioxidant activity of sulfur and selenium: A review of reactive oxygen species scavenging, glutathione peroxidase, and metal-binding antioxidant mechanisms
Battin, E.E., Brumaghim, J.L.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2009; 55(1): 1-23
189 Comparison of eumelanin and pheomelanin content between cultured uveal melanoma cells and normal uveal melanocytes
Hu, D.-N., Wakamatsu, K., Ito, S., McCormick, S.A.
Melanoma Research. 2009; 19(2): 75-79
190 A potent anti-oxidant property: Fluorescent recombinant α-phycocyanin of Spirulina
Guan, X.Y., Zhang, W.J., Zhang, X.W., Li, Y.X., Wang, J.F., Lin, H.Z., Tang, X.X., Qin, S.
Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2009; 106(4): 1093-1100
191 Programmed cell death and cancer
Sun, Y., Peng, Z.-L.
Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2009; 85(1001): 134-140
192 Cytoprotective effect of polypeptide from Chlamys farreri on neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells following H2O2 exposure involves scavenging ROS and inhibition JNK phosphorylation
Ye, J., Han, Y., Wang, C., Yu, W.
Journal of Neurochemistry. 2009; 111(2): 441-451
193 Evaluation of pH and Calcium Ion Release of Calcium Hydroxide Pastes Containing Different Substances
Húngaro Duarte, M.A., Midena, R.Z., Zeferino, M.A., Vivan, R.R., Weckwerth, P.H., dos Santos, F., Guerreiro-Tanomaru, J.M., Tanomaru-Filho, M.
Journal of Endodontics. 2009; 35(9): 1274-1277
194 Investigation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in patients with hepatitis B virus infection and the effect of interferon-α plus lamivudine combination therapy on oxidative stress | [Hepatit B virus enfeksiyonlu hastalarda oksidatif stres ve antioksidan kapasitenin araştirilmasi ve interferon-α-lamivudin kombinasyon tedavisinin oksidatif stres üzerine etkisi]
Acar, A., Görenek, L., Aydin, A., Eylgün, C.P., Eken, A., Sayal, A., Pahsa, A.
Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. 2009; 43(3): 411-423
195 Evaluation of DNA damage in people occupationally exposed to arsenic and some heavy metals
Szymańska-Chabowska, A., Beck, A., Porȩba, R., Andrzejak, R., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, J.
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2009; 18(6): 1131-1139
196 β-Catenin is involved in alterations in mitochondrial activity in non-transformed intestinal epithelial and colon cancer cells
M Mezhybovska, Y Yudina, A Abhyankar, A Sjölander
British Journal of Cancer. 2009; 101(9): 1596-1605
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197 Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus
Hu, H. and Zhang, Z. and Lei, Z. and Yang, Y. and Sugiura, N.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2009; 107(1): 42-48
198 Reactive Oxygen Species, Cancer and Anti-Cancer Therapies
Manda, G. and Nechifor, M.T. and Neagu, T.M.
Current Chemical Biology. 2009; 3(1): 22-46
199 Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats
Panneerselvam Janani,Kanakarajan Sivakumari,Chandrakesan Parthasarathy
Cell Biology and Toxicology. 2009; 25(5): 425
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200 Antioxidative and antiinflammatory potential of different functional drink concepts in vitro
Dartsch, P.C. and Kler, A. and Kriesl, E.
Phytotherapy Research. 2009; 23(2): 165-171
201 Biochemical and cellular toxicology of peroxynitrite: implications in cell death and autoimmune phenomenon
Ahmad, R. and Rasheed, Z. and Ahsan, H.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 2009; 31(3): 388-396
202 A potent anti-oxidant property: fluorescent recombinant $\alpha$-phycocyanin of Spirulina
Guan, XY and Zhang, WJ and Zhang, XW and Li, YX and Wang, JF and Lin, HZ and Tang, XX and Qin, S.
Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2009; 106(4): 1093-1100
203 Inhibition of reactive oxygen species and pre-neoplastic lesions by quercetin through an antioxidant defense mechanism
VASQUEZ-GARZON, V.R. and Arellanes-Robledo, J.
Free Radical Research. 2009; 43(2): 128-137
204 The use of magnetic field effects on photosensitizer luminescence as a novel probe for optical monitoring of oxygen in photodynamic therapy
Mermut, O. and Diamond, KR and Cormier, JF and Gallant, P. and H{\^o
Physics in Medicine and Biology. 2009; 54(1): 1-16
205 Antioxidant Activity of Some Phanerogam Plant Extracts
CONDRAT, D. and SZABO, M.R. and CRI\Ş AN, F. and LUPEA, A.X.
Food Science and Technology Research. 2009; 15(1): 95-98
206 Arsenic induces telomerase expression and maintains telomere length in human cord blood cells
Daniele Ferrario,Angelo Collotta,Maria Carfi,Gerard Bowe,Marie Vahter,Thomas Hartung,Laura Gribaldo
Toxicology. 2009; 260(1-3): 132
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
207 Bacteriophage interactions with phagocytes and their potential significance in experimental therapy
Aneta Kurzepa,Krystyna Dabrowska,Grzegorz Skaradzinski,Andrzej Górski
Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2009; 9(2): 93
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208 Modulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle dehydrogenases during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hexachlorocyclohexane in mice
Devendra Kumar Bhatt,Mehajbeen Bano
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 2009; 61(4): 325
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
209 Cytoprotective effect of polypeptide fromChlamys farrerion neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells following H2O2exposure involves scavenging ROS and inhibition JNK phosphorylation
Junli Ye,Yantao Han,Chunbo Wang,Wengong Yu
Journal of Neurochemistry. 2009; 111(2): 441
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
210 A potent anti-oxidant property: fluorescent recombinant a-phycocyanin ofSpirulina
X.Y. Guan,W.J. Zhang,X.W. Zhang,Y.X. Li,J.F. Wang,H.Z. Lin,X.X. Tang,S. Qin
Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2009; 106(4): 1093
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211 Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system
Dmitry I. Gabrilovich,Srinivas Nagaraj
Nature Reviews Immunology. 2009; 9(3): 162
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212 The JmjC Domain Histone Demethylase Ndy1 Regulates Redox Homeostasis and Protects Cells from Oxidative Stress?†
Polytarchou, C. and Pfau, R. and Hatziapostolou, M. and Tsichlis, P.N.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. 2008; 28(24): 7451-7464
213 Determination of para-Chloroaniline and Reactive Oxygen Species in Chlorhexidine and Chlorhexidine Associated with Calcium Hydroxide
Luiz Eduardo Barbin,Paulo César Saquy,Débora Fernandes Costa Guedes,Manoel Damião Sousa-Neto,Carlos Estrela,Jesus Djalma Pécora
Journal of Endodontics. 2008; 34(12): 1508
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
214 Mutacje mitochondrialnego DNA w rozwoju nowotworów głowy i szyi
Grzegorz Piętka, Wojciech Kukwa, Ewa Bartnik, Anna Ścińska, Anna M. Czarnecka
Otolaryngologia Polska. 2008; 62(2): 158
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215 An efficient synthesis of embelin derivatives through domino Knoevenagel hetero Diels–Alder reactions under microwave irradiation
Sandra Jiménez-Alonso,Haydee Chávez,Ana Estévez-Braun,Ángel G. Ravelo,Gabriela Feresin,Alejandro Tapia
Tetrahedron. 2008; 64(37): 8938
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216 Health effects of quercetin: From antioxidant to nutraceutical
Agnes W. Boots,Guido R.M.M. Haenen,Aalt Bast
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2008; 585(2-3): 325
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217 Mechanistic studies of fluorescent sensors for the detection of reactive oxygen species
Belinda Heyne,Sara Ahmed,J. C. Scaiano
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 2008; 6(2): 354
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218 Oxidative stress induces autophagic cell death independent of apoptosis in transformed and cancer cells
Y Chen,E McMillan-Ward,J Kong,S J Israels,S B Gibson
Cell Death and Differentiation. 2008; 15(1): 171
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219 Mechanistic studies of fluorescent sensors for the detection of reactive oxygen species
Heyne, B. and Ahmed, S. and Scaiano, JC
Organic \& Biomolecular Chemistry. 2008; 6(2): 354-358
220 Fatty Acids in the Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Balance in Cancer
Oxidants in Biology: A Question of Balance. 2008; : 129
221 Attenuation of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis by a novel flavonol—Morin
Sivaramakrishnan, V. and Shilpa, P.N.M. and Praveen Kumar, V.R. and Niranjali Devaraj, S.
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2008; 171(1): 79-88
222 Determination of para-Chloroaniline and Reactive Oxygen Species in Chlorhexidine and Chlorhexidine Associated with Calcium Hydroxide
Barbin, L.E. and Saquy, P.C. and Guedes, D.F.C. and Sousa-Neto, M.D. and Estrela, C. and P{\æe
Journal of Endodontics. 2008; 34(12): 1508-1514
223 Attenuation of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis by a novel flavonol—Morin
Venkatabalasubramanian Sivaramakrishnan,Perumal Narasimha Moorthy Shilpa,Varuvoor Rajesh Praveen Kumar,Sivasitambaram Niranjali Devaraj
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2008; 171(1): 79
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224 Mechanistic study of the ZEA organic pollutant degradation system: Evidence for H2O2, HO•, and the homogeneous activation of O2 by FeIIEDTA
Laine, D.F., Blumenfeld, A., Cheng, I.F.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 2008; 47(17): 6502-6508
225 Concerning possible pathways of lead carcinogenicity
Ilyicheva, S.A., Zaridze, D.G.
Voprosy Onkologii. 2008; 54(3): 268-271
226 Health effects of quercetin: From antioxidant to nutraceutical
Boots, A.W., Haenen, G.R.M.M., Bast, A.
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2008; 585(2-3): 325-337
227 Oxidative stress induces autophagic cell death independent of apoptosis in transformed and cancer cells
Chen, Y., McMillan-Ward, E., Kong, J., Israels, S.J., Gibson, S.B.
Cell Death and Differentiation. 2008; 15(1): 171-182
228 Serum level of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutases and cellular level of ras P21 and P53 in coke-oven workers
Zhang, Q., Wu, W., Zhou, F., Yao, W., Yang, H., Li, Z., Zhao, Y., (...), Wu, Y.
Life Science Journal. 2008; 5(1): 38-42
229 Vital tooth bleaching: Biologic adverse effects - A review
Minoux, M., Serfaty, R.
Quintessence International. 2008; 39(8): 645-659
230 Pilot study of PTEN deletion affecting the expression of Cu/Zn SOD
Yang, L., Gou, Q., Mi, C.
Chinese Journal of Pathology. 2008; 37(7): 477-480
231 Mitochondrial DNA mutations in the pathogenesis in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma | [Mutacje mitochondrialnego DNA w rozwoju nowotworów głowy i szyi]
Pietka, G., Kukwa, W., Bartnik, E., Ścińska, A., Czarnecka, A.M.
Otolaryngologia Polska. 2008; 62(2): 158-164
232 Immunohistochemical analysis of biomarkers in patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast: Correlation with menopausal status and histological grade
Vinothini, G., Letchoumy, P.V., Prathiba, D., Nagini, S.
Archives of Medical Science. 2008; 4(2): 129-139
233 Photodynamic Therapy: Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines as Photosensitizers
Leonardo Marmo Moreira,Fábio Vieira dos Santos,Juliana Pereira Lyon,Maira Maftoum-Costa,Cristina Pacheco-Soares,Newton Soares da Silva
Australian Journal of Chemistry. 2008; 61(10): 741
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234 Cytotoxic and Anti-oxidant Activities of Lanostane-Type Triterpenes Isolated from Poria cocos
Liang Zhou,Yaochun Zhang,Leslie Adell Gapter,Hui Ling,Rajesh Agarwal,Ka-yun Ng
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
235 Preliminary evaluation of rat kidney aldose reductase inhibitory activity of 2-phenylindole derivatives: affiliation to antioxidant activity
Sibel Suzen,Net Das-Evcimen,Pinar Varol,Mutlu Sarikaya
Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2007; 16(3): 112
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236 Implications of dealing with airborne substances and reactive oxygen species: What mammalian lungs, animals, and plants have to say
Oliveira, E.S., Hancock, J.T., Hermes-Lima, M., Isola, D.A., Ochs, M., Yu, J., Filho, D.W.
Integrative and Comparative Biology. 2007; 47(4): 578-591
237 Oxygen toxicity in the course of hyperbaric oxygenotherapy | [Kyslíková toxicita v průběhu léčby hyperbarickou oxygenoterapií]
Hájek, M.
Anesteziologie a Intenzivni Medicina. 2007; 18(2): 96-102
238 Antioxidant Activities of Synthetic Indole Derivatives and Possible Activity Mechanisms
Siizen, S.
Bioactive Heterocycles V. 2007; : 145
239 Preliminary evaluation of rat kidney aldose reductase inhibitory activity of 2-phenylindole derivatives: affiliation to antioxidant activity
Suzen, S. and Das-Evcimen, N. and Varol, P. and Sar{\i
Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2007; 16(3): 112-118
Heat Shock Proteins in Cancer. 2007; : 93
241 Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in T-Cell Defects in Cancer
Corzo, A. and Nagaraj, S. and Gabrilovich, D.I.
Tumor Induced Immune Suppression: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Reversal. 2007; : 259
242 Coordination of steps in single-nucleotide base excision repair mediated by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 and DNA polymerase beta
Liu, Y. and Prasad, R. and Beard, W.A. and Kedar, P.S. and Hou, E.W. and Shock, D.D. and Wilson, S.H.
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007; 282(18): 13532
243 Deactivation of Akt and STAT3 signaling promotes apoptosis, inhibits proliferation, and enhances the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to an anticancer agent, Atiprimod
Choudhari, S.R. and Khan, M.A. and Harris, G. and Picker, D. and Jacob, G.S. and Block, T. and Shailubhai, K.
Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2007; 6(1): 112-121
244 Role of p53 in antioxidant defense of HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells following H2O2 exposure
Ding, B. and Chi, S.G. and Kim, S.H. and Kang, S. and Cho, J.H. and Kim, D.S. and Cho, N.H.
Journal of cell science. 2007; 120(13): 2284-2294
245 Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Breast Epithelial Cells Transformed by 17-Estradiol
Huang, Y. and Fernandez, S.V. and Goodwin, S. and Russo, P.A. and Russo, I.H. and Sutter, T.R. and Russo, J.
Cancer Research. 2007; 67(23): 11147-11157
246 Signal processes and ROS production in glucose transport regulation by thrombopoietin and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulation factor in a human leukaemic cell line
Maraldi, T. and Prata, C. and Fiorentini, D. and Zambonin, L.
Free Radical Research. 2007; 41(12): 1348-1357
247 Synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent probe for reactive oxygen species
Belinda Heyne,Chad Beddie,J. C. Scaiano
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 2007; 5(9): 1454
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248 JBC Papers in Press. Published on March 12, 2007 as Manuscript M611295200
Liu, Y. and Prasad, R. and Beard, W.A. and Kedar, P.S. and Hou, E.W. and Shock, D.D. and Wilson, S.H.
Journal of Biological Chemistry. ;
249 Elisabeth Spinelli Oliveira,* John T. Hancock, Marcelo Hermes-Lima, Daniel A. Isola
Ochs, M. and Yu, J. and Wilhem Filho, D.
Integrative and Comparative Biology. ;


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