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RESEARCH
Reactive oxygen species: Role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions
Gulam Waris, Haseeb Ahsan
2006, 5:14 (11 May 2006)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-5-14  PMID:16689993
Oxygen derived species such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are well known to be cytotoxic and have been implicated in the etiology of a wide array of human diseases, including cancer. Various carcinogens may also partly exert their effect by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their metabolism. Oxidative damage to cellular DNA can lead to mutations and may, therefore, play an important role in the initiation and progression of multistage carcinogenesis. The changes in DNA such as base modification, rearrangement of DNA sequence, miscoding of DNA lesion, gene duplication and the activation of oncogenes may be involved in the initiation of various cancers. Elevated levels of ROS and down regulation of ROS scavengers and antioxidant enzymes are associated with various human diseases including various cancers. ROS are also implicated in diabtes and neurodegenerative diseases. ROS influences central cellular processes such as proliferation a, apoptosis, senescence which are implicated in the development of cancer. Understanding the role of ROS as key mediators in signaling cascades may provide various opportunities for pharmacological intervention.
  249 21,436 2,300
Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies
Takuji Tanaka
2009, 8:5 (26 March 2009)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.49014  PMID:19332896
This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries.
  79 21,348 3,132
Resveratrol, but not EGCG, in the diet suppresses DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats
Timothy Whitsett, Mark Carpenter, Coral A Lamartiniere
2006, 5:15 (15 May 2006)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-5-15  PMID:16700914
Despite the advent of new and aggressive therapeutics, breast cancer remains a leading killer among women; hence there is a need for the prevention of this disease. Several naturally occurring polyphenols have received much attention for their health benefits, including anti-carcinogenic properties. Two of these are resveratrol, a component of red grapes, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these two polyphenols protect against chemically-induced mammary cancer by modulating mammary gland architecture, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were exposed to either resveratrol (1 g/kg AIN-76A diet), EGCG (0.065% in the drinking water), or control diet (AIN-76A) for the entirety of their life starting at birth. At 50 days postpartum, rats were treated with 60 mg dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/kg body weight to induce mammary cancer. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, suppressed mammary carcinogenesis (fewer tumors per rat and longer tumor latency). Analysis of mammary whole mounts from 50-day-old rats revealed that resveratrol, but not EGCG, treatment resulted in more differentiated lobular structures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation studies showed that resveratrol treatment caused a significant reduction in proliferative cells in mammary terminal ductal structures at 50 days postpartum, making them less susceptible to carcinogen insult. The epithelial cells of terminal end buds in the mammary glands of resveratrol-treated rats also showed an increase in apoptotic cells compared to the control or EGCG-treated rats as measured by a DNA fragmentation assay. At the given doses, resveratrol treatment resulted in a serum resveratrol concentration of 2.00 μM, while treatment with EGCG resulted in a serum EGCG concentration of 31.06 nM. 17β-Estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin concentrations in the serum were not significantly affected by resveratrol or EGCG. Neither polyphenol treatment resulted in toxicity as tested by alterations in body weights, diet and drink consumptions, and day to vaginal opening. We conclude that resveratrol in the diet can reduce susceptibility to mammary cancer, while EGCG in the drinking water at the dose used was not effective.
  76 7,977 849
Constitutive activation of the Ras-Raf signaling pathway in metastatic melanoma is associated with poor prognosis
Roland Houben, Jurgen C Becker, Andreas Kappel, Patrick Terheyden, Eva-B Brocker, Rudolf Goetz, Ulf R Rapp
2004, 3:6 (26 March 2004)
PMID:15046639
Background: Genes of the Raf family encode kinases that are regulated by Ras and mediate cellular responses to growth signals. Recently, it was shown that activating mutations of BRaf are found with high frequency in human melanomas. The Ras family member most often mutated in melanoma is NRas. Methods: The constitutive activation of the Ras/Raf signaling pathway suggests an impact on the clinical course of the tumor. To address this notion, we analyzed tumor DNA from 114 primary cutaneous melanomas and of 86 metastatic lesions obtained from 174 patients for mutations in BRaf (exons 15 and 11) and NRas (exons 1 and 2) by direct sequencing of PCR products and correlated these results with the clinical course. Results: In 57.5% of the tumors either BRaf or NRas were mutated with a higher incidence in metastatic (66.3%) than in primary lesions (50.9%). Although the majority of BRaf mutations affected codon 599, almost 15% of mutations at this position were different from the well-described exchange from valine to glutamic acid. These mutations (V599R and V599K) also displayed increased kinase and transforming activity. Surprisingly, the additional BRaf variants D593V, G465R and G465E showed a complete loss of activity in the in vitro kinase assay; however, cells overexpressing these mutants displayed increased Erk phosphorylation. The correlation of mutational status and clinical course revealed that the presence of BRaf/NRas mutations in primary tumors did not negatively impact progression free or overall survival. In contrast, however, for metastatic lesions the presence of BRAF/NRAS mutations was associated with a significantly poorer prognosis, i.e. a shortened survival. Conclusion: We demonstrate a high - albeit lower than initially anticipated - frequency of activating BRaf mutations in melanoma in the largest series of directly analyzed tumors reported to date. Notably, the clinical course of patients harboring activating BRaf mutations in metastatic melanoma was significantly affected by the presence of a constitutive BRaf activation in these.
  69 7,194 925
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Synergism of EGFR and c-Met pathways, cross-talk and inhibition, in non-small cell lung cancer
Neelu Puri, Ravi Salgia
2008, 7:9 (5 December 2008)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.44372  PMID:19240370
Background: c-Met and EGFR receptors are widely expressed on cancer cells; they are implicated in the development and progression of cancer through a plethora of effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis, motility and metastasis and are potential targets for combination therapy. EGFR receptor tyrosine kinases are currently being targeted in a number of malignancies. Methods: Apoptosis was studied by FACS analysis using propidium iodide. EGF and HGF signaling intermediates were studied by western blotting. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assays. Cell motility was done by time lapse confocal microscopy. Results: c-Met and EGFR were both expressed in A549, H1838, H2170, SW900, SW1573, H358, SKLU-1, and H1993 non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Both EGF and HGF at 100 ng/ml in medium showed a synergistic effect on cell proliferation at 48-72 h as seen by a proliferation assay in A549, H1838, and SKMES cells. In A549 and H1838 cell lines, HGF (40 ng/ml) and EGF (5 ng/ml) induced synergistic phosphorylation on c-Met (Tyr 1003/1230/1234/1235). Additionally, synergistic phosphorylation of Akt (Ser-473) and phospho-ERK1+ERK2 (Thr202/Tyr204) was also seen indicating that EGF and HGF could induce synergistic phosphorylation of important signaling intermediates. Treatment with EGF and HGF at 100 ng/ml for 2 h also leads to an additive effect in inducing cell motility (especially membrane ruffling) in H1993 cells. A novel c-Met small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU11274 and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors Tyrphostin AG1478 and gefitinib (Iressa) were tested to study their effect in combination on proliferation and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Interestingly, a synergistic effect on inhibition of cell proliferation was seen in the presence of SU11274 and Tyrphostin AG1478. 0.5 M Tyrphostin AG1478 and 2 M SU11274 inhibited growth by 21% and 25%, respectively; a combination of both tyrosine kinase inhibitors inhibited growth by 65%. Interestingly, EGFR inhibitor (gefitinib, Iressa) and c-Met inhibitor (SU11274) also had a synergistic effect on apoptosis in H358 cells. Conclusion: There was a synergistic effect of EGF and HGF on proliferation, downstream activation of signal transduction and an additive effect seen on motility. These studies show that a combination of HGF and EGF tyrosine kinase inhibitors on NSCLC, could potentially be targeted in a synergistic fashion.
  67 13,149 2,095
p53 regulates mtDNA copy number and mitocheckpoint pathway
Mariola Kulawiec, Vanniarajan Ayyasamy, Keshav K Singh
2009, 8:8 (6 May 2009)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.50893  PMID:19439913
Background: We previously hypothesized a role for mitochondria damage checkpoint (mito-checkpoint) in maintaining the mitochondrial integrity of cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, defects in mitochondria have been demonstrated to cause genetic and epigenetic changes in the nuclear DNA, resistance to cell-death and tumorigenesis. In this paper, we describe that defects in mitochondria arising from the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mtOXPHOS) induce cell cycle arrest, a response similar to the DNA damage checkpoint response. Materials and Methods: Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts obtained from p53 wild-type and p53-deficient mouse embryos (p53 -/-) were treated with inhibitors of electron transport chain and cell cycle analysis, ROS production, mitochondrial content analysis and immunoblotting was performed. The expression of p53R2 was also measured by real time quantitative PCR. Results: We determined that, while p53 +/+ cells arrest in the cell cycle, p53 -/- cells continued to divide after exposure to mitochondrial inhibitors, showing that p53 plays an important role in the S-phase delay in the cell cycle. p53 is translocated to mitochondria after mtOXPHOS inhibition. Our study also revealed that p53-dependent induction of reactive oxygen species acts as a major signal triggering a mito-checkpoint response. Furthermore our study revealed that loss of p53 results in down regulation of p53R2 that contributes to depletion of mtDNA in primary MEF cells. Conclusions: Our study suggests that p53 1) functions as mito-checkpoint protein and 2) regulates mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial biogenesis. We describe a conceptual organization of the mito-checkpoint pathway in which identified roles of p53 in mitochondria are incorporated.
  58 10,893 1,726
RESEARCH
Genistein chemoprevention of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice
Jun Wang, Isam-Eldin Eltoum, Coral A Lamartiniere
2007, 6:3 (16 March 2007)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-6-3  PMID:17367528
Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between soy intake and prostate cancer risk. Genistein, the predominant phytoestrogen in soy food, has been proposed as a potential chemopreventive agent due to its anti-estrogen and tyrosine kinase inhibitory effects. To determine the most effective period for genistein chemoprevention, the Tr ansgenic a denocarcinoma m ouse p rostate (TRAMP) model was used. The treatments were 250 mg genistein/kg AIN-76A diet 1) prepubertally only, 2) in adulthood only or 3) through out life. Controls received AIN-76A diet. By 28 weeks of age, 100% TRAMP mice fed control diet developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) or adenocarcinomas with 6%, 16%, 44% and 34% developing high grade PIN, well differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinomas, respectively. Prepubertal only (1-35 days postpartum) and adult only genistein treatments (12 - 28 weeks) resulted in 6% and 29% decreases in poorly-differentiated cancerous lesions compared with controls, respectively. The most significant effect was seen in the TRAMP mice exposed to genistein throughout life (1-28 weeks) with a 50% decrease in poorly-differentiated cancerous lesions. In a separate experiment in castrated TRAMP mice, dietary genistein suppressed the development of advanced prostate cancer by 35% compared with controls. Of the tumors that developed in castrated TRAMP mice, 100% were poorly-differentiated in contrast to the 37% of noncastrated TRAMP mice that developed poorly-differentiated tumors. ICI 182,780 (ICI), genistein and estrogen down-regulated androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the prostates of C57BL/6 mice, and act independently of ER. Our data obtained in intact and castrated transgenic mice suggest that genistein may be a promising chemopreventive agent against androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancers.
  55 6,619 842
Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells
Marjan J Van Erk, Eva Teuling, Yvonne CM Staal, Sylvie Huybers, Peter J Van Bladeren, Jac MMJG Aarts, Ben van Ommen
2004, 3:8 (12 May 2004)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-3-8  PMID:15140256
Background: Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods: Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours). Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours) to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results: Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold) were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions: This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase-II genes). Moreover, potential new leads to genes and pathways that could play a role in colon cancer prevention by curcumin were identified.
  54 9,117 1,271
REVIEW
Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells
Quentin Felty, Deodutta Roy
2005, 4:1 (15 January 2005)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-4-1  PMID:15651993
In this review, we discuss estrogen actions on mitochondrial function and the possible implications on cell growth. Mitochondria are important targets of estrogen action. Therefore, an in-depth analysis of interaction between estrogen and mitochondria; and mitochondrial signaling to nucleus are pertinent to the development of new therapy strategies for the treatment of estrogen-dependent diseases related to mitochondrial disorders, including cancer.
  54 8,109 1,008
SPECIAL ISSUE ON CANCER PREVENTION AND DETECTION
Androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer development and progression
Peter E Lonergan, Donald J Tindall
2011, 10:20 (23 August 2011)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.83937  PMID:21886458
The androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis plays a critical role in the development, function and homeostasis of the prostate. The classical action of AR is to regulate gene transcriptional processes via AR nuclear translocation, binding to androgen response elements on target genes and recruitment of, or crosstalk with, transcription factors. Prostate cancer initiation and progression is also uniquely dependent on AR. Androgen deprivation therapy remains the standard of care for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Despite an initial favorable response, almost all patients invariably progress to a more aggressive, castrate-resistant phenotype. Considerable evidence now supports the concept that development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is causally related to continued transactivation of AR. Understanding the critical events and complexities of AR signaling in the progression to CRPC is essential in developing successful future therapies. This review provides a synopsis of AR structure and signaling in prostate cancer progression, with a special focus on recent findings on the role of AR in CRPC. Clinical implications of these findings and potential directions for future research are also outlined.
  51 44,236 2,491
RESEARCH
α2β1 integrin affects metastatic potential of ovarian carcinoma spheroids by supporting disaggregation and proteolysis
Kristy Shield, Clyde Riley, Michael A Quinn, Gregory E Rice, Margaret L Ackland, Nuzhat Ahmed
2007, 6:11 (14 June 2007)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-6-11  PMID:17567918
Background Ovarian cancer is characterized by a wide-spread intra-abdominal metastases which represents a major clinical hurdle in the prognosis and management of the disease. A significant proportion of ovarian cancer cells in peritoneal ascites exist as multicellular aggregates or spheroids. We hypothesize that these cellular aggregates or spheroids are invasive with the capacity to survive and implant on the peritoneal surface. This study was designed to elucidate early inherent mechanism(s) of spheroid survival, growth and disaggregation required for peritoneal metastases Methods In this study, we determined the growth pattern and adhesive capacity of ovarian cancer cell lines (HEY and OVHS1) grown as spheroids, using the well established liquid overlay technique, and compared them to a normal ovarian cell line (IOSE29) and cancer cells grown as a monolayer. The proteolytic capacity of these spheroids was compared with cells grown as a monolayer using a gelatin zymography assay to analyze secreted MMP-2/9 in conditioned serum-free medium. The disaggregation of cancer cell line spheroids was determined on extracellular matrices (ECM) such as laminin (LM), fibronectin (FN) and collagen (CI) and the expression of α2, α3, αv, α6 and β1 interin was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Neutralizing antibodies against α2, β1 subunits and α2β1 integrin was used to inhibit disaggregation as well as activation of MMPs in spheroids. Results We demonstrate that ovarian cancer cell lines grown as spheroids can sustain growth for 10 days while the normal ovarian cell line failed to grow beyond 2 days. Compared to cells grown as a monolayer, cancer cells grown as spheroids demonstrated no change in adhesion for up to 4 days, while IOSE29 cells had a 2-4-fold loss of adhesion within 2 days. Cancer cell spheroids disaggregated on extracellular matrices (ECM) and demonstrated enhanced expression of secreted pro-MMP2 as well as activated MMP2/MMP9 with no such activation of MMP's observed in monolayer cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated enhanced expression of α2 and diminution of α6 integrin subunits in spheroids versus monolayer cells. No change in the expression of α3, αv and β1 subunits was evident. Conversely, except for αv integrin, a 1.5-7.5-fold decrease in α2, α3, α6 and β1 integrin subunit expression was observed in IOSE29 cells within 2 days. Neutralizing antibodies against α2, β1 subunits and α2β1 integrin inhibited disaggregation as well as activation of MMPs in spheroids. Conclusion Our results suggest that enhanced expression of α2β1 integrin may influence spheroid disaggregation and proteolysis responsible for the peritoneal dissemination of ovarian carcinoma. This may indicate a new therapeutic target for the suppression of the peritoneal metastasis associated with advanced ovarian carcinomas.
  48 7,881 747
SHORT PAPER
Polymorphisms of the BRAF gene predispose males to malignant melanoma
Peter Meyer, Consolato Sergi, Claus Garbe
2003, 2:7 (14 November 2003)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-2-7  PMID:14617374
The incidence of malignant melanoma has rapidly increased in recent years. Evidence points to the role of inheritance in melanoma development, but specific genetic risk factors are not well understood. Recent reports indicate a high prevalence of somatic mutations of the BRAF gene in melanomas and melanocytic nevi. Here we report that germ-line single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BRAF are significantly associated with melanoma in German males, but not females. At-risk haplotypes of BRAF are shown. Based upon their frequencies, we estimate that BRAF could account for a proportion attributable risk of developing melanoma of 4% in the German population. The causal variant has yet to be determined. The burden of disease associated with this variant is greater than that associated with the major melanoma susceptibility locus C DKN2A , which has an estimated attributable risk of less than 1%.
  43 5,305 597
SPECIAL ISSUE - COLORECTAL CARCINOGENESIS AND PREVENTION
Wnt signaling and colon carcinogenesis: Beyond APC
Rani Najdi, Randall F Holcombe, Marian L Waterman
2011, 10:5 (17 March 2011)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.78111  PMID:21483657
Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway via mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) is a critical event in the development of colon cancer. For colon carcinogenesis, however, constitutive signaling through the canonical Wnt pathway is not a singular event. Here we review how canonical Wnt signaling is modulated by intracellular LEF/TCF composition and location, the action of different Wnt ligands, and the secretion of Wnt inhibitory molecules. We also review the contributions of non-canonical Wnt signaling and other distinct pathways in the tumor micro environment that cross-talk to the canonical Wnt pathway and thereby influence colon cancer progression. These 'non-APC' aspects of Wnt signaling are considered in relation to the development of potential agents for the treatment of patients with colon cancer. Regulatory pathways that influence Wnt signaling highlight how it might be possible to design therapies that target a network of signals beyond that of APC and β-catenin.
  41 19,950 206
RESEARCH
Ethnic differences in allelic distribution of IFN-g in South African women but no link with cervical cancer
Vandana A Govan, Henri RO Carrara, Johnny A Sachs, Margaret Hoffman, Grazyna A Stanczuk, Anna-Lise Williamson
2003, 2:3 (16 May 2003)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-2-3  PMID:12809559
Background: The failure of specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) to raise effective immune responses may be important in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in South African women. Polymorphisms of a number of cytokine genes have been implicated in inducing susceptibility or resistance to cancers caused by infectious agents owing to their role in determining host immune response. Polymorphisms of IL-10 and IFN-γ genes are believed to influence the expression and/or secretion levels of their respective cytokines. Methods and Results: In this study, women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 458) and hospital-based controls (n = 587) were investigated for bi-allelic -1082 (A/G) polymorphisms of IL-10 and the bi-allelic +874(A/T) polymorphisms of IFN-γ. In addition, the distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both the African and mixed race population groups of South Africa. We found striking differences in the allele distribution of IFN-γ ( X 2 = 0.02) among the two ethnic groups. A significant increase in the allele distribution of the IFN-γ AA genotype was found in the African group compared to the mixed population group (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0). For IL-10 there were no significant allelic differences between the two South African ethnic groups. Furthermore, when the ethnic groups were combined the IL-10 allelic frequencies in the combined South African data were similar to those observed in an Oriental population from Southern China and in an Italian population. However, the allele frequencies of the IFN-γ genotype among the two South African ethnic groups were different when compared to an Italian Caucasoid group. While crude analysis of these data showed both statistically significantly increased and diminished risks of cervical cancer among high producers of INF-γ and low producers of IL-10 respectively, these associations were no longer significant when the data were adjusted for confounding factors. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate a clear correlation between ethnicity and IFN-γ polymorphism across different population groups. However, these differences in ethnicity and gene polymorphisms in the aforementioned cytokines are suggested not to influence the development of invasive cervical cancer but may represent an important susceptibility biomarker for other diseases and should be explored further.
  38 5,758 613
Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer
Emma M Coates, Gina Popa, Chris IR Gill, Mark J McCann, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Ian Rowland
2007, 6:4 (18 April 2007)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-6-4  PMID:17442116
Background There is a probable association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and reduced risk of cancer, particularly cancer of the digestive tract. This anti-cancer activity has been attributed in part to anti-oxidants present in these foods. Raspberries in particular are a rich source of the anti-oxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Methods A "colon-available" raspberry extract (CARE) was prepared that contained phytochemicals surviving a digestion procedure that mimicked the physiochemical conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The polyphenolic-rich extract was assessed for anti-cancer properties in a series of in vitro systems that model important stages of colon carcinogenesis, initiation, promotion and invasion. Results The phytochemical composition of CARE was monitored using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The colon-available raspberry extract was reduced in anthocyanins and ellagitannins compared to the original raspberry juice but enriched in other polyphenols and polyphenol breakdown products that were more stable to gastrointestinal digestion. Initiation - CARE caused significant protective effects against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in HT29 colon cancer cells measured using single cell microgelelectrophoresis. Promotion - CARE significantly decreased the population of HT29 cells in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, effectively reducing the number of cells entering the cell cycle. However, CARE had no effect on epithelial integrity (barrier function) assessed by recording the trans-epithelial resistance (TER) of CACO-2 cell monolayers. Invasion - CARE caused significant inhibition of HT115 colon cancer cell invasion using the matrigel invasion assay. Conclusion The results indicate that raspberry phytochemicals likely to reach the colon are capable of inhibiting several important stages in colon carcinogenesis in vitro .
  37 9,021 1,158
Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of California, 1988-2000
Ratnali V Jain, Paul K Mills, Arti Parikh-Patel
2005, 4:21 (10 November 2005)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-4-21  PMID:16283945
Background: Although South Asians (SA) form a large majority of the Asian population of U.S., very little is known about cancer in this immigrant population. SAs comprise people having origins mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We calculated age-adjusted incidence and time trends of cancer in the SA population of California (state with the largest concentration of SAs) between 1988-2000 and compared these rates to rates in native Asian Indians as well as to those experienced by the Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and White, non-Hispanic population (NHW) population of California. Methods: Age adjusted incidence rates observed among the SA population of California during the time period 1988-2000 were calculated. To correctly identify the ethnicity of cancer cases, 'Nam Pehchan' (British developed software) was used to identify numerator cases of SA origin from the population-based cancer registry in California (CCR). Denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incidence rates in SAs were calculated and a time trend analysis was also performed. Comparison data on the API and the NHW population of California were also obtained from CCR and rates from Globocan 2002 were used to determine rates in India. Results: Between 1988-2000, 5192 cancers were diagnosed in SAs of California. Compared to rates in native Asian Indians, rates of cancer in SAs in California were higher for all sites except oropharyngeal, oesophageal and cervical cancers. Compared to APIs of California, SA population experienced more cancers of oesophagus, gall bladder, prostate, breast, ovary and uterus, as well as lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myelomas. Compared to NHW population of California, SAs experienced more cancers of the stomach, liver and bile duct, gall bladder, cervix and multiple myelomas. Significantly increasing time trends were observed in colon and breast cancer incidence. Conclusion: SA population of California experiences unique patterns of cancer incidence most likely associated with acculturation, screening and tobacco habits. There is need for early diagnosis of leading cancers in SA. If necessary steps are not taken to curb the growth of breast, colon and lung cancer, rates in SA will soon approximate those of the NHW population of California.
  34 6,043 690
Expression of Hyaluronan in human tumor progression
Rajeev K Boregowda, Hitesh N Appaiah, Manjunath Siddaiah, Sunil B Kumarswamy, Sunila Sunila, KN Thimmaiah, Karuna Kumar Mortha, Bryan Toole, Shib D Banerjee
2006, 5:2 (10 January 2006)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-5-2  PMID:16401353
Background: The development and progression of human tumors is accompanied by various cellular, biochemical and genetic alterations. These events include tumor cells interaction with extracellular matrix molecules including hyaluronan (HA). Hyaluronan is a large polysaccharide associated with pericellular matrix of proliferating, migrating cells. Its implication in malignant transformation, tumor progression and with the degree of differentiation in various invasive tumors has well accepted. It has been well known the role HA receptors in tumor growth and metastasis in various cancer tissues. Previously we have observed the unified over expression of Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein (HABP), H11B2C2 antigen by the tumor cells in various types progressing tumor tissues with different grades. However, the poor understanding of relation between HA and HA-binding protein expression on tumor cells during tumor progression as well as the asymmetric observations of the role of HA expression in tumor progression prompted us to examine the degree of HA expression on tumor cells vs. stroma in various types of human tumors with different grades. Methods: In the present study clinically diagnosed tumor tissue samples of different grades were used to screen the histopathological expression of hyaluronan by using b-PG (biotinylated proteoglycan) as a probe and we compared the relative HA expression on tumor cells vs. stroma in well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed either by pre-digesting the tissue sections with hyaluronidase enzyme or by staining the sections with pre-absorbed complex of the probe and HA-oligomers. Results: We show here the down regulation of HA expression in tumor cells is associated with progression of tumor from well differentiated through poorly differentiated stage, despite the constant HA expression in the tumor associated stroma. Conclusion: The present finding enlighten the relative roles of HA expression on tumor vs. stroma during the progression of tumors.
  33 5,766 636
Bystander effects in UV-induced genomic instability: Antioxidants inhibit delayed mutagenesis induced by ultraviolet A and B radiation
Jostein Dahle, Egil Kvam, Trond Stokke
2005, 4:11 (9 August 2005)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-4-11  PMID:16091149
Background: Genomic instability is characteristic of many types of human cancer. Recently, we reported that ultraviolet radiation induced elevated mutation rates and chromosomal instability for many cell generations after ultraviolet irradiation. The increased mutation rates of unstable cells may allow them to accumulate aberrations that subsequently lead to cancer. Ultraviolet A radiation, which primarily acts by oxidative stress, and ultraviolet B radiation, which initially acts by absorption in DNA and direct damage to DNA, both produced genomically unstable cell clones. In this study, we have determined the effect of antioxidants on induction of delayed mutations by ultraviolet radiation. Delayed mutations are indicative of genomic instability. Methods: Delayed mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase ( hprt ) gene were detected by incubating the cells in medium selectively killing hprt mutants for 8 days after irradiation, followed by a 5 day period in normal medium before determining mutation frequencies. Results: The UVB-induced delayed hprt mutations were strongly inhibited by the antioxidants catalase, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase, while only reduced glutathione had a significant effect on UVA-induced delayed mutations. Treatment with antioxidants had only minor effects on early mutation frequenies, except that reduced glutathione decreased the UVB-induced early mutation frequency by 24 %. Incubation with reduced glutathione was shown to significantly increase the intracellular amount of reduced glutathione. Conclusion: The strong effects of these antioxidants indicate that genomic instability, which is induced by the fundamentally different ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiation, is mediated by reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide and downstream products. However, cells take up neither catalase nor SOD, while incubation with glutathione resulted in increased intracellular levels of glutathione. Previously, we have shown that ultraviolet induced delayed mutations may be induced via a bystander effect and that this effect is 5-fold higher for UVB radiation than for UVA radiation. Therefore, we propose that the antioxidants inhibit an ultraviolet radiation-induced bystander effect and that the effect is transmitted via the medium and via an internal transfer between cells, like gap junctional intercellular communication, for UVB radiation and only by the latter mechanism for UVA radiation.
  28 6,248 729
SPECIAL ISSUE - COLORECTAL CARCINOGENESIS AND PREVENTION
The AOM/DSS murine model for the study of colon carcinogenesis: From pathways to diagnosis and therapy studies
Mariangela De Robertis, Emanuela Massi, Maria Luana Poeta, Simone Carotti, Sergio Morini, Loredana Cecchetelli, Emanuela Signori, Vito Michele Fazio
2011, 10:9 (24 March 2011)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.78279  PMID:21483655
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in industrialized countries. Although inflammation-linked carcinogenesis is a well accepted concept and is often observed within the gastrointestinal tract, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Inflammation can indeed provide initiating and promoting stimuli and mediators, generating a tumour-prone microenvironment. Many murine models of sporadic and inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis have been developed in the last decade, including chemically induced CRC models, genetically engineered mouse models, and xenoplants. Among the chemically induced CRC models, the combination of a single hit of azoxymethane (AOM) with 1 week exposure to the inflammatory agent dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in rodents has proven to dramatically shorten the latency time for induction of CRC and to rapidly recapitulate the aberrant crypt foci-adenoma-carcinoma sequence that occurs in human CRC. Because of its high reproducibility and potency, as well as the simple and affordable mode of application, the AOM/DSS has become an outstanding model for studying colon carcinogenesis and a powerful platform for chemopreventive intervention studies. In this article we highlight the histopathological and molecular features and describe the principal genetic and epigenetic alterations and inflammatory pathways involved in carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS-treated mice; we also present a general overview of recent experimental applications and preclinical testing of novel therapeutics in the AOM/DSS model.
  28 32,688 529
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Zoledronic acid directly suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in highly tumorigenic prostate and breast cancers
Hussain Almubarak, Antonia Jones, Risa Chaisuparat, Ming Zhang, Timothy F Meiller, Mark A Scheper
2011, 10:2 (15 January 2011)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.75723  PMID:21297922
  25 10,525 812
RESEARCH
The role of c-kit and imatinib mesylate in uveal melanoma
Patricia Rusa Pereira, Alexandre Nakao Odashiro, Jean Claude Marshall, Zelia Maria Correa, Rubens Belfort Jr, Miguel N Burnier Jr
2005, 4:19 (19 October 2005)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-4-19  PMID:16236162
Background: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults, leading to metastasis in 40% of the cases and ultimately to death in 10 years, despite local and/or systemic treatment. The c-kit protein (CD117) is a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor and its overexpression has been observed in several neoplasms. Imatinib mesylate is a FDA approved compound that inhibits tyrosine quinase receptors, as well as c-kit. Imatinib mesylate controls tumor growth in up to 85% of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors, a neoplasia resistant to conventional therapy. Methods: Fifty-five specimens of primary UM selected from the archives of the Ocular Pathology Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, were immunostained for c-kit. All cells displaying distinct immunoreactivity were considered positive. Four human UM cell lines and 1 human uveal transformed melanocyte cell line were tested for i n vitro proliferation Assays (TOX-6) and invasion assay with imatinib mesylate (concentration of 10 μM). Results: The c-kit expression was positive in 78.2% of the UM. There was a statistical significant decrease in the proliferation and invasion rates of all 5 cell lines. Conclusion: The majority of UM expressed c-kit, and imatinib mesylate does decrease the proliferation and invasion rates of human UM cell lines. These results justify the need for a clinical trial to investigate in vivo the response of UM to imatinib mesylate.
  25 6,888 676
Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra : a preliminary study
Samantha S Iddamaldeniya, Nalinie Wickramasinghe, Ira Thabrew, Neelakanthi Ratnatunge, Mayuri G Thammitiyagodage
2003, 2:6 (18 October 2003)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-2-6  PMID:14613573
Background: A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root and Smilax glabra rhizome is used to treat cancer patients in Sri Lanka. However, the anti-carcinogenic properties of this decoction have not been experimentally confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the above decoction could protect against chemically induce hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods: The effects of this decoction on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocarcinogenesis were examined in male Wistar rats using the medium term bioassay system of Ito, based on a 2-step model of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 each. Groups 1 to 4 were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg) to initiate carcinogenesis. Twenty-four hours later groups 1 and 2 were administered the decoction at 4 g/kg body weight/day (dose 1) and 6 g/kg body weight/day (dose 2), respectively. Group 3 and group 4 were given distilled water instead of the decoction and a suspension of garlic powder (20 g/kg body weight/day) in distilled water (positive control), respectively. Group 5 and 6 were injected with normal saline and twenty-four hours later group 5 was given distilled water (normal control) while group 6 was given decoction dose 2 (decoction control). Oral feeding continued for two weeks after which all rats were subjected to 2/3 partial hepatectomy to promote carcinogenesis. Oral feeding continued for eight more weeks. At the end of the 10th week, rats were sacrificed and samples of livers taken for immunohistochemical studies. Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the number, area and staining intensity of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci and the number of cells/cm 2 of the positive foci in the livers of the six groups of rats. Results: The number and area of DEN-mediated GST-P positive foci, number of cells/cm 2 of foci and staining intensity of the foci were significantly (P > 0.001) reduced by the decoction and garlic in the order dose 2 = garlic >dose 1. Conclusion: Overall results indicate that the decoction comprised of N. sativa , S. glabra and H. indicus has the potential to protect rat liver against DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis
  25 5,487 825
SHORT PAPER
Prevalence of pesticide exposure in young males (≤50 years) with adenocarcinoma of the prostate
Anil Potti, Amit W Panwalkar, Eric Langness
2003, 2:4 (15 July 2003)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-2-4  PMID:12890285
Evidence implicating pesticides as causative agents of prostate cancer is controversial, and specifically, data in young adults is lacking. Hence, we performed a preliminary study evaluating the relationship between pesticide exposure and prostate cancer in young males. After approval from the University of North Dakota Institutional Review Board and Human Subjects Committee, a retrospective study was performed on all young males (2400 hours were considered as 'exposed.' The 2400 hour cut-off value was chosen on the basis of previous reports indicating that this figure represents heavy exposure to genotoxic agents. Statistical analysis was obtained using SPSS-10 . Between 1991 and 2001, 61 young males with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were identified, of whom 56 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range: 40-49) had complete records of treatment and could be contacted for completion of the questionnaire. The most common stage at presentation was Stage III and the mean Gleason's score was 7.5 (range 5-9). Interestingly, almost a third (16/56, 28.6%) of patients had stage IV disease at presentation. 37/56 (66.1%) patients had 'significant' exposure in our study. In addition, interestingly, the mean survival in the subgroup of patients with pesticide exposure was 11.3 months (SD: +/- 2.3 months), while the mean survival in the patients without pesticide exposure (n = 19) was 20.1 months (SD: +/- 3.1 months), with p-value <0.01. Although our study is relatively small, it does reveal preliminary evidence linking pesticide exposure to the early development of, possibly aggressive, prostate adenocarcinoma. Future, larger, epidemiological studies are needed to confirm the findings of our study.
  25 4,043 527
RESEARCH
The mRNA expression of hTERT in human breast carcinomas correlates with VEGF expression
Katharine L Kirkpatrick, Robert F Newbold, Kefah Mokbel
2004, 3:1 (22 January 2004)
DOI:10.1186/1477-3163-3-1  PMID:14738567
Background: Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesises telomeres after cell division and maintains chromosomal stability leading to cellular immortalisation. hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) is the rate-limiting determinant of telomerase reactivation. Telomerase has been associated with negative prognostic indicators in some studies. The present study aims to detect any correlation between hTERT and the negative prognostic indicators VEGF and PCNA by quantitatively measuring the mRNA expression of these genes in human breast cancer and in adjacent non-cancerous tissue (ANCT). Materials and methods: RNA was extracted from 38 breast carcinomas and 40 ANCT. hTERT and VEGF165, VEGF189 and PCNA mRNA expressions were estimated by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Taqman methodology. Results: The level of expression of VEGF-165 and PCNA was significantly higher in carcinoma tissue than ANCT (p = 0.02). The ratio of VEGF165/189 expression was significantly higher in breast carcinoma than ANCT (p = 0.025). hTERT mRNA expression correlated with VEGF-189 mRNA (p = 0.008) and VEGF165 (p = 0.07). Conclusions: hTERT mRNA expression is associated with the expression of the VEGF189 and 165 isoforms. This could explain the poorer prognosis reported in breast tumours expressing high levels of hTERT. The relative expression of the VEGF isoforms is significantly different in breast tumour to ANCT, and this may be important in breast carcinogenesis.
  24 4,223 589
REVIEW ARTICLE
Melanoma: Stem cells, sun exposure and hallmarks for carcinogenesis, molecular concepts and future clinical implications
Athanassios Kyrgidis, Thrasivoulos-George Tzellos, Stefanos Triaridis
2010, 9:3 (1 April 2010)
DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.62141  PMID:20442802
Background :The classification and prognostic assessment of melanoma is currently based on morphologic and histopathologic biomarkers. Availability of an increasing number of molecular biomarkers provides the potential for redefining diagnostic and prognostic categories and utilizing pharmacogenomics for the treatment of patients. The aim of the present review is to provide a basis that will allow the construction-or reconstruction-of future melanoma research. Methods: We critically review the common medical databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane CENTRAL) for studies reporting on molecular biomarkers for melanoma. Results are discussed along the hallmarks proposed for malignant transformation by Hanahan and Weinberg. We further discuss the genetic basis of melanoma with regard to the possible stem cell origin of melanoma cells and the role of sunlight in melanoma carcinogenesis. Results: Melanocyte precursors undergo several genome changes -UV-induced or not- which could be either mutations or epigenetic. These changes provide stem cells with abilities to self-invoke growth signals, to suppress anti-growth signals, to avoid apoptosis, to replicate without limit, to invade, proliferate and sustain angiogenesis. Melanocyte stem cells are able to progressively collect these changes in their genome. These new potential functions, drive melanocyte precursors to the epidermis were they proliferate and might cause benign nevi. In the epidermis, they are still capable of acquiring new traits via changes to their genome. With time, such changes could add up to transform a melanocyte precursor to a malignant melanoma stem cell. Conclusions : Melanoma cannot be considered a "black box" for researchers anymore. Current trends in the diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma are to individualize treatment based on molecular biomarkers. Pharmacogenomics constitute a promising field with regard to melanoma patients' treatment. Finally, development of novel monoclonal antibodies is expected to complement melanoma patient care while a number of investigational vaccines could find their way into everyday oncology practice.
  24 11,221 1,373
* Source: CrossRef
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